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Original Research 
RMJ. 2021; 46(4): 947-950


Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan

Shireen Rafeeq, Muhammad Sijil Naman, Muhammad Tayyab Ijaz, Mumtaz Touseef, Izza Ali Rai, Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry.

Abstract
Objective: To determine the association of excessive smartphone use with sleep duration with daytime sleepiness and fatigue.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2019 to January 2020 in Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan. The sample consisted of 295 undergraduate medical students of both gender, selected by Convenience Sampling. Data were collected using a self-designed questionnaire documenting details of respondentsí sleep and phone use. SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis.
Results: Sleep duration showed a statistically significant association with bedtime use of smartphone (p=0.024), but not with overall use of smartphone per day. Daytime sleepiness and fatigue showed a significant association with overall use of smartphone per day (p=0.001), bedtime use of smartphone (p=0.009), checking the phone during the night (p=0.013) and with being disturbed by the phone during the night (p=0.024).
Conclusion: Excessive smartphone usage at any time of the day is associated with daytime sleepiness and fatigue, however, sleep duration is only associated with bedtime usage of smartphones.

Key words: Daytime fatigue, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, smartphone use.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Rafeeq S, Naman MS, Ijaz MT, Touseef M, Rai IA, Chaudhry MA. Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. RMJ. 2021; 46(4): 947-950.


Web Style

Rafeeq S, Naman MS, Ijaz MT, Touseef M, Rai IA, Chaudhry MA. Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. http://www.rmj.org.pk/?mno=38666 [Access: October 14, 2021].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Rafeeq S, Naman MS, Ijaz MT, Touseef M, Rai IA, Chaudhry MA. Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. RMJ. 2021; 46(4): 947-950.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Rafeeq S, Naman MS, Ijaz MT, Touseef M, Rai IA, Chaudhry MA. Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. RMJ. (2021), [cited October 14, 2021]; 46(4): 947-950.



Harvard Style

Rafeeq, S., Naman, . M. S., Ijaz, . M. T., Touseef, . M., Rai, . I. A. & Chaudhry, . M. A. (2021) Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. RMJ, 46 (4), 947-950.



Turabian Style

Rafeeq, Shireen, Muhammad Sijil Naman, Muhammad Tayyab Ijaz, Mumtaz Touseef, Izza Ali Rai, and Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry. 2021. Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 46 (4), 947-950.



Chicago Style

Rafeeq, Shireen, Muhammad Sijil Naman, Muhammad Tayyab Ijaz, Mumtaz Touseef, Izza Ali Rai, and Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry. "Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 46 (2021), 947-950.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Rafeeq, Shireen, Muhammad Sijil Naman, Muhammad Tayyab Ijaz, Mumtaz Touseef, Izza Ali Rai, and Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry. "Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan." Rawal Medical Journal 46.4 (2021), 947-950. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Rafeeq, S., Naman, . M. S., Ijaz, . M. T., Touseef, . M., Rai, . I. A. & Chaudhry, . M. A. (2021) Association of excessive smartphone use with sleep in students of a private medical college in Lahore, Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 46 (4), 947-950.








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